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Are these representatives of some intimidating and pompous monarchs from Tudor times? Or are they just generalized images of royalty through the ages?
As much as it might feel like Henry VIII is metaphorically shouting "off with his head! That's not to say that it's impossible that a deck might feature a real king; the artwork varied according to the whims of card designers, manufacturers and the region in which the cards were produced.
Picture cards came into being in Europe in the midth century — centuries after playing cards had become popular.
French and British decks of the 16th century were said to often depict Alexander the Great , Julius Caesar , the biblical King David and Charlemagne on the king cards — representing the four great empires of Greece, Rome, the Jews and the Franks.
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FandomShop DC Trivia GalaxyQuest. The knight was subsequently dropped out of non- Tarot decks leaving the valet directly under the queen.
The king-queen-valet format then made its way into England. As early as the midth century the card was known in England as the knave meaning a male servant of royalty.
Although jack was in common usage to designate the knave, the term became more entrenched when, in ,  American cardmaker Samuel Hart published a deck using "J" instead of "Kn" to designate the lowest-ranking court card.
The knave card had been called a jack as part of the terminology of the game All Fours since the 17th century, but this usage was considered common or low class.
However, because the card abbreviation for knave was so close to that of the king "Kn" versus "K" , the two were easily confused. This confusion was even more pronounced after the markings indicating suits and rankings were moved to the corners of the card, a move which enabled players to "fan" a hand of cards without obscuring the individual suits and ranks.
The earliest deck known of this type is from , but such positioning did not become widespread until reintroduced by Hart in , together with the knave-to-jack change.
Books of card games published in the third quarter of the 19th century still referred to the "knave" however, a term that is still recognized in the United Kingdom.
Note the exclamation by Estella in Charles Dickens 's novel Great Expectations : "He calls the knaves, jacks, this boy! In the English pattern,  the jack and the other face cards represent no one in particular,  in contrast to the historical French practice, in which each court card is said to represent a particular historical or mythological personage.
The valets in the Paris pattern have traditionally been associated with such figures as Ogier the Dane a knight of Charlemagne and legendary hero of the chansons de geste for the jack of spades;  La Hire French warrior for the Jack of Hearts; Hector mythological hero of the Iliad for the jack of diamonds; and Lancelot or Judas Maccabeus for the jack of clubs.
In some southern Italian decks, there are androgynous knaves that are sometimes referred to as maids. For the court cards, this comprises the initial letter or letters from the name of that card.
In English countries they are lettered A, K, Q and J for Ace, King, Queen and Jack. In other countries the letters may vary. Germany uses A, K, D and B As , König , Dame and Bube ; Russia uses T, K, D and B Tuz , Korol , Dama and Valet ; Sweden uses E, K, D and Kn Ess , Kung , Dam and Knekt and France uses 1, R, D, V 1, Roi , Dame , and Valet.
Although French-suited, card packs are the most common playing cards used internationally, there are many countries or regions where the traditional pack size is only 36 Russia, Bavaria or 32 north and central Germany, Austria or where regional cards with smaller packs are preferred for many games.
For example, or card Italian-suited packs are common in Italy; and card Spanish-suited packs on the Iberian peninsula; and card German-suited packs are very common in Bavaria and Austria.
In addition, tarot cards are required for games such as French tarot 78 cards , which is widely played in France, and the Tarock family of games 42 or 54 cards played in countries like Austria and Hungary.
The English pattern pack originated in Britain which was importing French playing cards from Rouen and Antwerp by The earliest cards of the English pattern date to around But Britain only started manufacturing its own cards towards the end of the 16th century, when card production began in London.
These were based on the Rouen pattern, but unlike the traditional French cards, they dropped the names on the court cards.
The English pattern evolved, in the process losing "some of its Rouen flavour and elegance and became more and more stylised. The figures took more space in the cards and many details were distorted.
All early cards of this type were single-headed, but around , the double-headed cards, universally used on modern decks, appeared.
Corner indices were added around During the 19th century, the English pattern spread all over the world and is now used almost everywhere, even in countries where traditional patterns and other suits are popular.
In America, the English pattern was copied onto wider cards. The fanciful design and manufacturer's logo commonly displayed on the ace of spades began under the reign of James I of England , who passed a law requiring an insignia on that card as proof of payment of a tax on local manufacture of cards.
Until August 4, , decks of playing cards printed and sold in the United Kingdom were liable for taxable duty and the ace of spades carried an indication of the name of the printer and the fact that taxation had been paid on the cards.
In the United States, standard playing cards are available in both "wide" and "narrow" sizes, referred to by one manufacturer as either "poker" or "bridge" sized;  nominal dimensions are summarized in the adjacent table.
However, there is no formal requirement for precise adherence and minor variations are produced by various manufacturers in different countries.
The slightly narrower cards are more suitable for games such as bridge and some types of poker, where a number of cards must be held or concealed in a player's hand.
In other table games, such as 21 blackjack , a modern casino may use hundreds or even thousands of decks per day, so paper cards are used for those, for economic reasons.Tax evasion was common and packs were illegally imported from other European Pkr Poker. Deaths of two female Army soldiers probed in Texas. What is the probability that a face card is drawn?